Vitamins are organic in nature but unlike carbohydrates, proteins and fats, they are required in a small quantity for the normal functioning of the body. Vitamins cannot be produced by the body hence, they must be included in our diets. They are classified into two main groups:
WATER SOLUBLE: Vitamins that can be dissolve in water but not in fats and oils or other organic component (e.g. B1, B2, B6, C) niacin and the rest.
FAT SOLUBLE: Vitamins that can be dissolved in fats and oils and other organic solvents but not in water e.g. vitamins A, D, E and K. also known as vitamin ADEK.


Both for the WATER SOLUBLE AND FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS, foods that contains vitamins includes; Whole cereals, offal, legumes, leafy vegetables, cheese, brewer’s yeast, fish, fruits (orange, pawpaw, carrots, cabbage,), palm oil, margarine, ultra violet rays (Vitamin D).

The functions of VITAMINS are numerous but I will list few of them below,
 Production of essential body enzymes that are involved in the release of energy from carbohydrate which promote growth.

 It also acts as coenzymes in the fat and protein metabolism.
 Formation of red blood cells.

 Vitamins enhances the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body; good development of bones and healthy teeth.

 Taking vitamins in the morning or after a meal enhances the digestion process.
 Vitamins generally increase the palatability of food and it also helps in losing a reasonable body weight.

 Research has made us to understand that it helps in improving the level of sperm production.

Considering the benefits of vitamins listed above you will agree with me that lack or insufficient supply of vitamins in the body can lead to adverse health state and deformation in the random growth and development of the body, constipation and indigestion problem can be easily overcome with a slight increase in the level of vitamins taken.


They are inorganic elements that are required by the body in a minute quantity by the body. They are inorganic nutrients unlike protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils and vitamins that are organic. They perform whole of functions like growth and vital metabolic activities.
They are mostly classified into MACRO ELEMENTS (required in large amounts by the body e.g. sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium,) and MICRO OR TRACE ELEMENTS (they are required in very little quantities by the body e.g. iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, fluorine and cobalt.)

As much as mineral elements are inorganic compounds they are gotten from the organic source. Food that supply the body with mineral nutrients includes; MILK and DAIRY PRODUCTS, HARD WATER SEA FOODS, GREEN VEGETABLES, FRUITS, NUTS, LEAN MEAT, CEREALS, PULSES, LIVER, FISH, CABBAGE, TABLE SALTS (also known as salt licks in farm animals) CARROTS, ORANGES, GRAPE FRUIT, BUTTER.
The functions of mineral elements are;
They contribute to the skeletal development and absolute proper bone formation and healthy teeth.
They are essential for blood clotting and normal functioning of the muscles.
Development of bones, transmission of nerve impulse; maintenance of acid-base balance of the body fluid; storage and release of energy for reproduction of cells.
Essential for development of hair and nails and for the formation of connective tissue.
They help to synthesis enzymes needed in the processes of various body reaction.
Deficiency of mineral element in the body can lead to some skeletal malformation, poor quality teeth, poor clothing of blood, poor bone development, poor hair and nail development and unhealthy skin. It use to lead to some bad and skeletal problem in poultry birds when we have birds having problem with upright standing, poor health and fractured bones, anemia and slow growth, it is advised to take mineral element in our diet so as to experience a better and proper health state.


Water is the major component of all the living things. It is very essential for the existence of plants and animals. As we have discussed earlier in my previous update that water is made up of two elements, which are hydrogen and oxygen with the formula H2O. Water has no energy value in it own form but it is the medium by which various all nutrients and minerals Is been distributed all over the body. In pure form, it is colorless, odorless and tasteless. It is about two thirds of the body weight.
 Water as a good solvent serves as the medium for various biochemical reactions in the body.
 It also serves as the medium of transportation for substances from one part of the body to another.
 It also aids the digestion process and absorption of nutrients in the body.
 Water keeps the lining of the membranes of the organs moist and hence reduces friction.
 Water goes a long way in regulating the temperature of the body.
 It also helps in getting rid of waste products from the body.
 Absolutely, drinking of water is the resultant and effective way of quenching thirst.
 Taking water in the morning can help regulate the body system effective for the digestion of food and avoidance of constipation.

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