How to start a hatchery poultry farm, incubation of eggs - production of chicks in poultry Part 2

Here is the part 2 of the recent course we are sharing together on this FARM about poultry farming.
Hatching processes; an incubator which is used for hatching eggs to
chick are made up of a setter and a hatcher. Fertilised eggs are kept
in the setter for 18days  
 the remaining three days before
hatching the eggs are placed in the hatcher.  
It is often advice to
place more than the required number of eggs in the incubator so as to
have the desired number of chicks. Conditions for incubator to
function properly: 
its recommended that before fertilised eggs are
 the incubator should be run for 24hours in other to monitor
the functionality of the incubator, 
most times they require the

following conditions
 . Temperature range of 37c - 39c. 2. Relative
humidity of 50 - 70%; an optimum level beign 60% 3. Adequate
 Components of an Incubator are: 
1. Heat source - includes lantern, heater or electric heater. 
2 control unit, damper or thermostat, heat distribution unit;
 3. Relative humidity mediation unit which can be a basin of water, cotton-wool or
 4 Felt tray - (to hold eggs and reduce cracking) or egg
5. Thermometer - is  use to detect the temperature level of the
 6. Fan or air circulation unit or vent for ventilation, egg
turning device for regular turning of eggs; 
7. Insulator, to regulate and prevent heat loss. 
Testing for fertility and validity: 
eggs and dead ones can be detected about six days after incubation by
the process called CANDLING
The machine used for this purpose is called EGG CANDLER. 
Candling consists of the passage of concentrated
source of light through the egg in a dark room in order to see through
the egg. 
Its not easy to carry out candling in commercial basis
because of the number of eggs involved. 
 However, its routinely done
in research stations. 
Two candling are done usually in six  to seven
days of incubation. Live embryo shows a spider-like appearance in the
 Inferrtile eggs are clear with no spider-like appearance.
Infertile eggs are clear with no spider-like appearance. 
helps to determine the active, alive and developing eggs and the dead
the following are the
steps that must be taken in order to ensure all eggs hatch within the
same day or at the same time so as to have a good record and proper
poultry farm plan for the newly hatch chicks. 
 1. Properly setting
eggs uniformly on the tree.  
2. Timely and regular turning of eggs. 
3. Ensure suitable environmental conditions, temperature, relative
humidity and proper ventilation. 
4. Proper candling of the eggs. 
5. Setting eggs at the same time.
 6. Selecting eggs of the same size. 
7. Test-run the incubator for proper functioning. 
8. Holding period for
eggs before setting should not be more than 14days(2weeks).
 In our next post we will be discussing more about how to raise the new chicks to mature the whole husbandry of poultry birds and brooding from day old chicks 
stay tune to this FARM

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