Rice farming business in Nigeria | processing, packaging, practical tips for improved rice production
Hello everyone, in our last post we shared about "How to start Rice farming Business in Nigeria" Rice farming is one of the fast growing business in Nigeria and its attracting both local and international investors due to the lucrative potential of this grain crop
* Rice (Oryza sativa) is widely grown in most part of Nigeria and the rest of the world obviously because Rice is widely distributed and consumed by everyone in different parts of the world.
Today i want to share some important and vital cultural practices on various aspects of rice husbandry which includes:
PROCESSING OF RICE,
and lots more if you are planning to embark on rice farming in this rainy season then this is a very important post you should read as it will go a long way to prosper your rice farming for the year 2014 and even beyond.
The regular spacing of rice should be between 25cm to 30cm apart, depending on variety.
CULTURAL PRACTICES includes: Supplying and thinning, there can be done where applicable. Fertilizer application:
Apply 150kg or three bags of N. P.K fertilizer per hectare at plating by broadcasting. Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice and get rid of similar rice-like growing grasses that might be sharing the soil nutrients with the rice.
Pests and Diseases; these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
Maturity Period - Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.
Harvesting: Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester you can adopt any of these two systems based on the size of the farm and colume of rice to be harvested.
Must read: Rice farming Business in Nigeria a Goldmine' Farming biz | how to start rice farming business
Processing of Rice: there are some important processes involve in the processing of rice and i will list them right here:
1. SUN DRYING: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days, some people use to air dry but sun drying is simply the most effective.
2. Threshing: this is the separation of the rice grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers based on the size of the farm either a commercial holding or a small farm holding.
3. Winnowing: after threshing, the chaff orunwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a farming operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues. After winnowing, the grains of rice remains enclosed by the husk to form what is called "PADDY".
4. PARBOILING: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12 - 15 hours.
The rice swells and husks are forced apart. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried.
5. Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.
6. Polishing: in some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as Rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called Beri-Beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.
STORAGE: RIce can be stored as paddy rice or in processed form in silos or jute bags. Pests of Rice: there are three (3) major pests of rice and they includes:
Rodents, and Rice weevils
these organisms are the major concern of rice farmers as they can reduce yield beyond conmpare! But they can be controlled and manage by farmers: as for birds you can scared them away by yourself or use
another effective way to fight birds is early harvesting.
Rodents which includes: cane rats and grasscutter they cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss you can control them by setting traps in the farm also you should build fence round the farm to secure the plants.
Rice weevils attacks stored rice as adults larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder you can easily control them by fumigating the stored rice with phostoxin tablets.
Rice is very lucrative business you can venture into and within the period of a year and if you put every of these principles and tips in place you will succeed!
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