Some Basic Important Insights on Poultry Farming Start up Requirements

  1. Incubators: The 30,000 egg incubator available will be able to hold the following capacity of eggs according to bird types:
  • Chicken————–33,750
  • Quail—————–47,000
  • Turkey—————29,000
The cost of this capacity of incubator is ₦ 2,956,000 (Two Million, Nine Hundred and Fifty-Six Thousand Naira, only). 

*** The above illustration serves as an example as there are different capacities of incubators available ranging from 50 to 30,000 eggs.
  1. Intensive system of management: is a modern system of poultry management/housing by which birds are raised purely in enclosures and under proper accountability by the farmer. The confinement is entirely with no access to land outside, and it is usually adopted where land is limited and expensive. This system is associated with routine practices which are strictly followed so as to optimize productivity, reduce disease transmission and improve health of birds
  • Deep litter and
  • Battery cage systems are most common
  • Deep Litter System: In deep litter system, shredded papers, saw dust, straw or leaves are laid on disinfected (with weak bleach solutions sprayed lightly) spacious pen up to a depth of 8-12 inches upon which the birds are placed to move freely within the pen. Feeder and drinking troughs are placed strategically such that that all birds will have access to them.
This system is preferred in broiler management in order to minimize cost of setup and ease of disinfection/fumigation between batches since the period of rearing and housing per batch of broiler is short; about 1/10th when compared to that of layers
If the troughs are hung at different levels so that both sexes of birds (for broilers) make choice on which to feed from while brooder boxes (for layers) are provided at locations they’ve gotten used to for laying eggs.
    Battery Cage System: The battery cage system is the best housing system to utilize once the capacity of laying birds is proposed to be above 1,000. It ensures conservation of floor space, makes for easy handling and management as well as easy disease control strategy (very important). The battery cages could be
  • Full Automated or
  • Semi Automated
** For details on full automated battery cage system, you may need to visit us (Find address below)
 Full Automated Battery Cages: These cages are prefabricated in Turkey and go best with the consumer’s options. The cages come with all (depending on the consumer’s choice) the accessories automated ranging from climatic control monitors and regulators (i.e. for temperature and humidity), vaccine/drug dispensing units, automatic egg collector, egg sorter and egg labelling units, automatic manure remover, feeding and drinking system are also automated. Since the level of automation varies with individual/customers, these invariably determine the cost of the fabrication and cost of cages.
Also, important to mention, is the uninterrupted source of power/energy required in running this system of automation continuously; nonetheless the cost of labour is reduced and theft among staff /farm workers is minimal if not totally eliminated.
 Semi Automated Battery Cages (Hot Dip Galvanized battery cages): These are readily available to a great extent and have some of its accessories automated. This type of cage also comes with the water delivery system and feeding trough. The watering system upon installation is automated but the feeding troughs may or may not be automated. Automating the manure removal unit is optional too, since it comes as a separate unit.
There are also semi automated cages for raising broilers and also for raising day old birds but like the full automated cages, they are fabricated according to the consumers’ specification/choice by the manufacturing company
Below is a breakdown of the costs of our galvanized battery cages for a 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 capacity layer poultry
PREMIUM CAGE (Hot Dip Galvanized): comes in A-shape with 25 years warranty and is rust free.
Capacity is 120 birds per unit (4 birds per nest). There are 3 tiers (3 layers) on one side and another 3 tiers on the other side making it a total of 6 tiers per unit. Each tier has 5 nests hence 20 birds per layer. It comes with feeding and drinking accessories but the manure removal units come separately.
A unit of Premium (Hot Dip Galvanized) cage costs ₦85,000 only. Installation cost is ₦3,000 per unit and may be reduced to ₦2,500 depending on the number of cages to be installed. The more cages to be installed the likeliness of cost reduction.
For 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 capacity farms; 17, 42 and 84 units of cages respectively will be needed.
The poultry building or pen design for 2,000, 5,000 or 10,000 capacity poultry farms are constructed in 8m by 35m, 12m by 35 m or 12m by 70m dimensions respectively. Therefore depending on the capacity of the farm more pens could be constructed or pen expansion can take place if the need arises.
Cost of constructing a 12m by 70m pen to house 10,000 laying birds will be between ₦6,800,000 to ₦7,000,000 per pen. The 84 units of cages (which can take a maximum of 10,080 birds) are set/installed in rows of three containing 28 units (3,360 birds) per row.
***Pictorial design will be added as an attachment with a detailed business plan when you consult us.
Furthermore, automatic manure remover and feed delivery units can be installed (farmer’s choice as the automation comes as a separate unit). Manure remover will cost ₦485,000 (Four Hundred and Eighty Five Thousand Naira) per pen of 10,000 capacity. Feed delivery unit will cost ₦350,000 (Three Hundred and Fifty Thousand Naira) per pen to also set up.
  1. Birds: The ripe grower age for which laying birds are transferred from brooding pen to layer cage is 14 weeks of age where they stay till they start laying up until they are spent. At this age they are either called ‘’Point of cage’’ or ‘’Point Of Lay’’ (POL). Birds are either bought at this age from reputable farms specialized in raising pullets from Day Old to POL or are bought as Day Old Chicks (DOC) pullets and raised by the farmer in a brooding pen till they are old enough to be transferred to layer cages.
Below are costs of birds as DOC (pullets) or as POL for a 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 capacity farm.
                                     COST (₦)
 2,000 Capacity5,000 Capacity10,000 Capacity
Day Old Chick (DOC)360,000900,0001,800,000
Point Of Lay (POL)1,800,0004,500,0009,000,000
  • DOC pullets/ broiler will cost ₦180/chick
  • POL birds at 14 weeks old will cost ₦900/grower bird
  1. Price of DOC varies with season of the year while cost of POL varies with age and season of the year. Mortality rate of about 15% to 18% is moderate when raising birds from DOC to when they start laying.
  1. Consultation on Feeds: Feeding of DOC varies with age and increases on weekly basis but stabilizes from 14 weeks of age till they all start laying at about 22 weeks. DOCs are fed with Chick Mash and at 7/8 weeks old, they are fed with Grower Mash up until a greater percentage comes into lay before switching to Layers Mash. Worthy to note is that pelleted feeds (e.g. Vital ®Feed from UAC plc) last longer than mash feeds (from other feed mills like TOP Feeds etc). Since the quantity of feed consumed is constant (at about 80- 100gm/bird/day depending on the feed type) from 14 weeks of age till they start laying at about 22 weeks when it increases, calculating the feed consumption is easier at this stage as illustrated below:
Cost of Feeding from 14 weeks till Lay for 5,000 capacity poultry is ₦2.4 Million. This is broken down as 500 kg/day (20 bags of 25 kg/bag) at ₦2,000/bag hence totalling ₦40,000/day. Since it will take the birds 6/8 weeks (approximately 60 days) for a greater percentage of the birds to come to lay, cost of feeding till lay is estimated to be ₦2.4 Million.
WEEKFEED (per 25 kg bag)            COST ()
            1            12            28,800
            2            25            60,000
            3            41            98,800
            4            60            143,040
            5            75            180,480
            6            95            227,520
TOTAL            308            738,640
***At the conversion rate of 0.48
(25 kg bag)
COST (₦)
(@ ₦2000/bag)
(for 60 days)
14 – 222040,0002,400,000
(25 kg bag)
COST (₦)
(@ ₦2400/bag)
  • Farm Consultancy (details of levels and fees are attached)
  • Incorporation of Farm companies with Corporate Affairs Commission.
  • Creating of detailed Business Plan with workable Cash Flow
  • Sale of Farm equipments (battery cages, automatic bell drinkers, defeathering machines, debeaking machines,
  • Sale of Farm products/Inputs (DOC- pullets, broilers, quail, poults/turkey, POL birds etc)
  • Construction and/or supervision of pen construction.
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Trust you will always receive prompt and careful attention as you partner with us.
Dr. Paul Oche Adoyi
Chief Executive Officer, Farmergiant Nigeria Limited
No. 56 Shasha Road, Akowonjo, Lagos, Nigeria.

1 comment:

  1. Dear Dr,
    I am impress with your write up. Am about starting a poultry farm in Abuja precisely.
    Am looking at rearing of boiler and layer but in my knowledge I know layers to start laying at 18wks but I don’t know why in your write up you said 22wks.
    Also ,in your building cost for 10000layer ,is it with all other facilities like the cage etc or just the building that cost N7M.
    Like to know from you Dr. if there is a use to be design ment for layers birds.
    Infact I have open commumications with a battery cage seller but I am going to hold on to seek further details , I may have to consult you .
    Thank you as I look forward to read from you and establish a business relationship for our mutual benefit.


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