Mammals and Ruminant Lactating Milk Composition and Comparison


 Milk contains components that are essential to humans such as proteins, carbohydrates, fat, water, all the B-vitamins, vitamins A and D, calcium and phosphorus. 


It also provides energy.





 An important protein in milk is casein (in many cases 80% of the milk protein).



This is the base for cheese making. Casein is linked to calcium phosphate, which is why milk contains a relatively large amount of this salt that is a very important nutrient for humans and animals. In addition to casein, milk contains whey proteins (20% of the milk protein). 


 

The whey proteins are in most cases not incorporated in the cheese; they remain in the whey. Whey proteins (globulins and albumins) have a very high nutritive value. 

Milk protein is of a high quality. 

This means that the human body can use a large part of the protein efficiently. Proteins in various other foodstuffs have a complementary effect.

 In combination with cereals, potatoes, meat, eggs or nuts in one meal, the body can use an even greater percentage of the milk protein.

  Apart from milk, there are other animal protein sources such as fish and meat. Vegetable protein, which is also important in making the body's proteins, is found in cereals and pulses. Protein is needed by the body for growth, replacement of worn-out body proteins and the production of compounds that the body needs. 


Milk sugar (lactose) is a carbohydrate, a necessary component to keep the body going. Our bodies burn carbohydrates in the same way an oven burns wood. 

Through this combustion, energy is released which is used by our bodies for many kinds of activities.


Milk fat is present in the form of small fat globules, which have a lower weight than the other components of the milk. 


When cow milk is allowed to stand, these globules collect on top of the milk and form a layer of cream. 

Buffalo milk also forms some cream on top, but other kinds of milk, such as that of sheep and goats, hardly form a layer of fat at all. 

For these types of milk one needs to separate the cream from the milk. Milk fat is easy to digest. 

The body uses fat as a fuel or stores it as fat reserves.
The composition of mother's milk and milk from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, donkey and lama .

Milk source
Fat%
Protein %
Lactose%
Calcium %
Energy (cal/100g)
Human(mother’s milk)
4.6
1.2
7.0
0.0
73
Friesian cow
3.5
3.3
4.6
0.1
62
Guernsey cow
4.7
3.2
4.7
0.1
75
Indian buffalo
7.5
3.8
4.9
0.2
100
Goat
4.5
3.3
4.4
0.1
71
Sheep
7.5
5.6
4.4
0.2
105
Mare
1.6
2.2
6.0
0.1
47
Donkey
1.5
2.1
6.2
0.1
46
Camel
4.2
3.7
4.1
-
70
lama
3.2
3.9
5.3
-
65



This may be partly explained by differences in the digestive system of the two groups. 


Apart from the differences in cream formation there are other differences between the various kinds of milk. There is a lot of provitamin A (carotene) in cow milk, giving it its yellow colour, but not in buffalo, goat or sheep milk.

 In the milk of goats and sheep the carotenoids are already converted into the colourless vitamin A. 

This is why only cow milk is yellow in colour. 

Buffalo milk curdles sooner than cow milk. 


Unless the preparation is adjusted, cheese made from buffalo milk will mature more slowly and have a drier consistency than cheese made from cow milk. 

Goat milk can have an unpleasant smell; this can be prevented by boiling the milk as soon as possible after milking. 

Between some goats or breeds of goats there may be a difference in the taste of the milk. Cow milk accounts for 91% of the world's milk production. 

Buffalo, goat and sheep milk account for 5.9%, 1.6% and 1.7% respectively.

 Although there are enormous regional differences we can generally say that, if it is to be drunk, milk from cows or buffaloes is preferred to that from goats and sheep. 

This is because of the more neutral flavour of cow milk and buffalo milk. 

Goat and sheep milk are, just like the milk of cows and buffaloes, popular for making cheese and soured milk products (especially sheep milk). 

Camel milk is usually drunk. Mother’s milk is the most ideal food for a suckling infant.

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